Drug soaking and water addition
The drug should be soaked and moistened before cooking.
Because plant-based traditional Chinese medicine is mostly dry, it has a certain volume and thickness.
It must be immersed in cold water at room temperature before decoction. The purpose is to make the Chinese medicine moist and soft, and the cells swell, so that the active ingredients are first dissolved in the medicinal tissue to produce osmotic pressure, and the active ingredients will penetrate into the water outside the medicinal tissue cells.
At the same time, the protein contained in the tissue of the medicinal material can be prevented from solidifying during heating and boiling, and the gelatinization of the starch prevents the effective ingredients from exuding.
The bacteriostatic experiment of Baitouweng decoction against Staphylococcus aureus proves that the bacteriostatic diameter of the first decoction after immersion for 20-30 minutes is 17 mm, and the second decoction is 15 mm.The bacteriostatic diameter of the liquid is 15 millimeters, and the second decoction is 14 millimeters, that is, the first decoction that has not been soaked can only achieve the efficacy of the second decoction after soaking.
Therefore, the herbs should be soaked in cold water before cooking.
The soaking time depends on the nature of the medicinal materials. Generally, the main compound medicines such as medicinal materials, leaves and stems can be soaked for 20-30 minutes. The medicinal materials mainly based on roots, rhizomes, seeds, fruits, etc. can be soaked for 60 minutes.
But soaking time should not be too long, so as not to cause drug hydrolysis and mildew.
The amount of water added to the decoction is a very important issue. The amount of water added directly affects the quality of the decoction.
With more medicine and less water, it will cause “incomplete cooking and endless cooking.”
The active ingredient is not completely leached, and the medicine juice will dry up after a short time evaporation. The active ingredient of the medicine can be destroyed by local high fever. Although the medicine has less water and more, it can increase the dissolution amount of the active ingredient, but the amount of the decoction is too large for patients.
Different materials of Chinese medicines have significant differences in water absorption, generally 5-10 times the weight of the medicine, and some as much as 20 times the weight of the fat sea. Therefore, the amount of decoction depends on the amount and volume of the medicine.
Drugs of the same weight will have a large volume and will absorb a lot of water if the volume is easy.
The smaller the area, the smaller the space and the less water absorption.
Frying flowers, leaves, whole grass and its many easy-to-use medicines require more water than usual.
The amount of water used for cooking minerals, shells and other drugs with small impurities should be less than the normal amount of water.
Traditionally, place the decoction pieces in a frying pan and add water to a degree of 3-5 cm above the surface of the drug. The second frying can exceed 1-2 cm of the surface of the drug residue.
This is a convenient and easy way to add water.
Calculate by adding about 10 milliliters of water per gram of Chinese medicine, and then add 70% of the calculated total water content to the first decoction, leaving the remaining 30% for the second decoction.
According to the length of the decoction, the amount of water evaporation, the size of the water absorption performance of the traditional Chinese medicine, and the required amount of medicinal liquid, the water consumption can be grasped.
Therefore, the amount of water added should be determined according to several factors such as the length of the decoction, the amount of water evaporation, the size of the water absorption performance of the medicine, and the yield of the medicinal solution.
Some people have studied the formula for calculating the amount of water added to Chinese medicine for decoction: Q = W × K + R + T × V where Q-water is added W—the original drug amount K—the water absorption amount T—the decoction time V—the amount of water evaporation per unit time R―Using the above formula to calculate the amount of water to be added is a troublesome task.
First of all, a large number of tests must be done. The brakes must be used to determine the water absorption of the two medicinal materials before they can be listed for backup. Secondly, the V value can be measured under the condition that the decoction firepower remains unchanged.
Experiments have shown that it is generally applicable to master an average evaporation of 15-20 ml per minute.
However, it must be operated in a certain container and at a certain temperature. If the conditions change, the calculated Q value is meaningless.
Therefore, the above calculation formula is only applicable to units with a lot of decoction business.
The amount of decoction should be determined according to the total amount of each payment.
Generally, the higher the amount of decoction, the higher the decoction rate.
However, the amount of medicinal solution obtained is limited by the amount taken, so a reasonable limit needs to be determined.
Some people have determined from experimental data that when the amount of decoction is 1: 4, the decoction rate of 70% -80% can be obtained by two decoctions. For example, when the amount of transformation solution is concentrated to 1: 2, it can be taken by patients.
A research unit carried out 87 decoctions in the fire, and recorded the actual water consumption. According to the statistical method, the correlation coefficient between the weight of the medicine and the water consumption was calculated.Medicine weight (two) + 150 ml + dosage of second decoction = dosage + 200 ml This calculation formula is suitable for the application of the old scale 1-8 two drugs, direct fire heating decoction.
The heating time is about half an hour. If the water absorption rate of the drug is too large or the firepower is too small when it is cooked, you can increase or decrease the amount of water according to the specific conditions.
The intake required by the clinician is generally between 150-300 ml, which should be reduced in children.